Battle System


Battle Rules

Horse & Musket Period.

Combat table
Die Roll – Casualty Loss – Morale Loss
0...................5%........................0
1...................5%........................-0.75
2...................5%........................-1.
3...................10%......................-1.50
4...................10%......................-1.75
5...................15%.......................1.75
6...................15%......................2
7...................20%......................-2.5
8...................25%......................-3

Note:
Casualty figures are a percentage of the side causing the casualties (ie firing side)
Morale is accumulative over the 3 rounds of combat

Above is the fire & melee chart.

The casualty loss is a percentage of the firers total volley from a single unit per fire or melee phase.. In a small action the unit may be a Battalion, in a larger scale action the unit would possibly be a Brigade.
There are three combat phases to a turn, these three phases can be a combination of Movement/fire and melee.

Assume a battalion is just outside musketry range, its commander could for example order his battalion to advance into range = 1st phase, fire 2nd Phase, and then charge to melee 3rd phase. There are a number of combinations a commander could use in his 3 phases, as long as his unit keeps its morale high enough to stay in action.
For example a defending commander could stay on the defense and order 3 fire phases, if at any stage of those 3 phases his unit is attacked by a charge the phase when his unit makes contact with the enemy unit automatically becomes a melee order instead of a fire phase.
Each phase has a variable time element based on the scale of the battle, in actions where battalions are being fought I generally allow 3 minutes in time per phase, however in a Brigade battle where the action is between larger units I would allow 10 minutes between phases.

Naturally for a unit to move on to the next phase it must have the morale ability to do so, if it has taken considerable casualties in fire it may become shaken or even pull back or if its morale goes -2 on the morale chart it will break. (See Morale).







Modifiers – Die Roll (additions and deductions on combat die roll)
British Fire ….....................................................................+1
Russian Melee Defense ….................................................+1
Prussian Melee Attack (Post 1806)…................................+1
Irregular (Fire & Melee).....................................................-2
Militia/Conscript (Fire & Melee).......................................-1
Veteran/Elite/Guard (Fire & Melee....................................+2/+3/+3
Heavy Cav v Light Cav (except Lancer/against lancer).....2/1
Units in Column firing …...................................................-1
Disordered (Melee & Fire) ….............................................-1
Counter attack against Cautious attack …..........................+1 (Counter attacker)
Counter attack against probe …..........................................+2 (Counter attacker)
Counter attack against assault …........................................-2
Deduct per experience level in melee …............................-1
Unit moved or is moving this phase (fire only)..................-1

Modifiers – (deductions on combat die roll)
Small BUA /scrub/light cover …........................................-1 (defender)
Medium BUA/Medium cover …........................................-2 (defender)
Large BUA/ Heavy cover …..............................................-3 (defender)
Cavalry (except lancers v Inf in square)….........................-2(cavalry)
Lancers v Inf in square …..................................................-1 (Lancers)

If cavalry fail to win melee against square they must withdraw 3 “spaces” and are disordered.

Modifier s to morale Levels (add to current morale points)
Any unit in Light cover …...................................................+1
Any unit in Medium or heavy cover …...............................+2
The above include BUA's
Enemy cavalry pass through or attack through Light Inf …-1 from Lt inf morale
Unit is fired on from Flanks ........................................... Morale loss is double (may only return fire
at 25% of strength)

Basic Starting Morale points
Irregular …..........................................................................+2
Militia and conscript...........................................................+3
Regular …............................................................................+4
Veteran …............................................................................+5
Elite/Guards …....................................................................+6/+7

Effects of Morale
a) If base morale figures remain in positive they continue as ordered.
b) If base figures reach 0 they stop, if in contact withdraw 1 movement space. It will not move forward again until its morale returns to positive.
c) If base figure is -1 they throw 6d and move that number of movement spaces back but face the enemy, they remain out of contact until morale recovers. If the morale drops -3 or below the unit immediately routs from the field of battle.
    d) Any unit of equal experience level or less within 1 movement space of the initial or subsequent rout of the original rout loses 0.25 morale points

Regaining Morale

A unit that has not suffered any losses and is not being fired upon (Infantry or artillery) regains 0.25 of its morale at the end of the turn. If it was forced to rout, this does not apply.

Remember morale deductions are accumulative against these levels over the 3 consecutive phases.

All the above modifiers will occur in combat phases only.

Army Morale
Total the number of units and add their base more figure, ie 10 regular units at morale level of 3 will give the army a morale level of 30.
A army of 10 conscript and 5 regular will give the army a morale level of 40
At the end of a combat turn (not phase) for each unit that was routed that turn deduct 2 of the army morale, with each unit that did a force back deduct 1 of the army morale.
Once the army level reaches 50% of its starting level all units involved lose 0.50 from their base morale which means they become quite fragile for the rest of the battle.
If the 0.50 deduction puts any unit on 0 then that unit withdraws 1 movement space and cannot move forward until its morale returns to positive.
For each enemy unit you force to rout in a turn you gain 1 to your army morale.

Tactical or Battle Movement.
On the battle map moves are referred to as Movement spaces. The actual distance of a move will vary on the scale of the map and as with all battles movement and weapon ranges are determined prior to the battle.

All movement is done in “Movement Spaces”, a movement space will vary from battle to battle depending on map scale.

In 1 turn
Inf in line move 1 space
Infantry in Column move 2 spaces
Infantry in open order may move up to 3 Infantry spaces.
(Infantry in open order may not move closer than 1 movement space of a close order body of troops.)
If open order Infantry are attacked or moved through by enemy cavalry they deduct -1 from morale but are assumed to have evaded for that turn. (3 phases)

Heavy cavalry move 4 movement spaces
Medium and Light cavalry move 5 movement spaces.

Terrain effects on movement
woods, marsh and small rivers – deduct ½ movement
Moving through BUA units must be column or open order, a unit passing through a BUA in column takes 3 minutes per 100 men to pass through.
Moving over a bridge a unit must be in column (road march), a bridge crossing takes 2 minutes per 100 men to cross, so a Battalion of 700 men will take 14 minutes to completely cross.

Note on Artillery
Note close range for artillery is musketry range.
Light artillery up to 4pdr may fire each phase with a rate of 100 men -Max range 2 Movement spaces.

Medium artillery up to 9 pdr may fire any two phases at a rate of 300 men – Max range 3 movement spaces but if 3 movement spaces the furthermost space is at a rate of 150 men and deduct 1 on the die.


Heavy Artillery (over 9pdr) may fire any two phases at the following rates
1-4 movement spaces = 500 men at 1 space add 1 to the die.
5 movement spaces = 300 men 
6 movement spaces = 250 men and deduct 1 on the die

Artillery must always fire at the closest enemy unit, if charged Gunners may evade just like open order troops, but they must evade to cover or friendly square. Evade move 2 Infantry spaces. If they fail to find cover and are contacted by cavalry they are eliminated, if contacted by enemy infantry they may not fight back in defense.

Command
This is an optional rule but one I use when playing solo Kriegspiel games, I find it takes the unit reactions away from my god like hands and armies or units do not act like well oiled machines.
It is one that can easily apply to teams and I recommend players at least try them out.

Kriegspiel battles can be fought as a solo endeavor, or with teams of players. The commanders of the units within battles have their own command issues, which may take their reactions to orders and events away from the god like effect of a player.
In normal circumstances most units will do as ordered whilst able too, but occasionally things will go awry and this particularly applies to lesser grade units such as irregulars through to conscripts. However even the best unit may have a bad day so the possibility for a hiccup to occur must exist, particularly in fog of war environment.


The command issues in a battle very much depend on the scale of the action. Naturally in larger battles the reaction of a battalion will not count for as much as a brigade, so in these rules I generally refer to command being the senior commander in the army involved and subsequent sub commanders being below him.

Issuing of orders.
All units obey the last received order, unless new orders are received and if they are then the reaction of the sub commander receiving the order is tested, in most cases it will be received and understood with no ill reaction, but there is a small chance of some confusion hence this optional rule.

The issuing or changing of orders come from the senior commander of the battle, he issues orders via dispatch riders who will move from his position to the units involved.
A dispatch rider moves at 6 movement spaces and will usually follow roads or tracks, but where they may be compromised by enemy units the dispatch rider will move cross country at a rate of half his movement rate.

Issuing of orders at the commencement of battle means all units start the battle with their orders unless the scenarios call for a different requirement (unexpected battle etc)

During the battle.
Situations change during a battle, often the senior commander will need to send new orders to a sub commander and he in turn may need to send new orders to commanders below him. Equally sub commanders may face events that the senior commander is not aware of or in the worse case for some reason gets confused, delays in reacting or his own command has issues and the orders from above are either delayed or not obeyed at all.
To reflect this network of command all commanders have command ratings and when orders or event occur the subsequent commander needs to check his understanding of the situation.

Receiving new orders

orders are obeyed on the following die roll,

Irregular = 4,5,6
Militia/Conscript = 3,4,5,6
All units regular and above = 2,3,4,5,6.

If a unit does not throw the the required die,that unit then throws for its reaction

1-2 = continues with previous instructions
3= stops and send a dispatch rider to next senior commander for clarification, remains halted until the
dispatch rider returns, minimum period halted is 1 full turn.
4= Unit slows for some reason and will move at half speed, if only 1 movement space remains when
order arrives it halts. Partial movement rates are rounded down for this.
5= Unit blindly over reacts and doubles its movement regardless of consequences and situations.
6= If in charge reach of an enemy they immediately charge that unit, if not within charge reach they immediately move into fire range and engage in firefight for the remainder of the phases. If not a fire unit, they halt for the remainder of the phases.

Remember this is an optional rule but does add a tremendous nervous edge to a game, especially if you are fighting with conscripts and militia.

Post battle conclusions

At the end of the 3 phases of combat 1 full turn has passed and then movement starts all over again, at the end of the movement turn we then go back into another 3 phases of combat.
This see sawing back and forth continues until one side decides either they are losing to much or their units involved simply become fragile to continue.
Depending on the scale of a battle the post battle activities (ie Pursuit) depends on how long units have been in combat.
Remember in a Multi battalion level game I generally allow 10 minutes to a turn, 3 minutes to each combat phase.
In a brigade level game I allow 30 minutes to a turn and 10 minutes to each combat phase.


2 comments:

  1. Good day, I have followed your various blogs for a while now as a lurker but I wanted to tell you how much I enjoy your posts. I really like your Kriegspiel rules and I am hoping to try them out in the near future. Keep up the great work! Cheers, Bill

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  2. Many thanks Bill, I very much appreciate the support and any queries please dont hesitate to ask and furthermore adapt them to your own needs.

    ReplyDelete